World Day Against Human Trafficking
(Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon)
In 2013, the General Assembly of the United adopted resolution A/RES/68/192 and designated July 30 as the World Day against Trafficking in Persons. This resolution declared that such a day was necessary to “raise awareness of the situation of victims of human trafficking and for the promotion and protection of their rights.â
What is Trafficking in Persons (TIP)?
The universal definition for trafficking in persons is “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation.â
The above definition was established by the United Nations (UN) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. This Protocol was signed December 2000 in the city of Palermo, Italy and is otherwise known as “the Palermo Protocolâ. The “Palermo Protocolâ is a supplemental Protocol to the United Nations (UN) Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, of which St Vincent and the Grenadines is a signatory.
Human trafficking is a rapidly expanding global phenomenon. It is slavery in a modern form and a crime against humanity. Human trafficking is a criminal network and business which yields enormous profits. The crime is as profitable as trafficking in arms and ammunition and is the second most profitable criminal network after drug trafficking; with annual earnings of approximately US 32 billion dollars (US State Dept).
Global Data on Human Trafficking
o There are approximately 10-30 million slaves worldwide (Kevin Bales and ILO.)
o 600,000-800,000 persons are trafficked globally on an annual basis (2004 US State Dept).
o Over 1million plus children are trafficked globally on an annual basis ( UNICEF 2008)
The crime of human trafficking usually involves the following stages known by the acronym A.M.E
A – Activity
M – Means
E – Exploitation
Elements of the Activity include:
o Recruiting the victim
o Transporting the victim (internally or externally)
o Transferring the victim
o Harbouring the victim and;
o Receiving the victim (selling the victim to another person)
Elements of the Means include:
o Use of force
o Abuse of power
o Abuse of a position of vulnerability
Types of Exploitation include:
o Forced labour or Services
o Force Prostitution
o Domestic Servitude
o Sexual Exploitation
o Slavery or services similar to slavery
o Removal of organs
o Street Begging
o Forced Marriages
o Child Soldiers
The ultimate purpose of human trafficking is the exploitation of the human being or victim for financial or material benefit.
Some Possible Causes of Human Trafficking
Below are some of the “push and pullâ factors which can place an individual at great risk of becoming a victim of human trafficking;
o The demand for cheap or inexpensive labour, services and products
o Lack of employment opportunities
o Lack of educational opportunities
o Social and political conflict
o Intolerance and discrimination
Consequences of Human Trafficking
When a person is âtraffickedâ the consequences for the victim can be very great and painful. Here are some of the effects of human trafficking:
o Repeated violation of the victimâs human rights
o Verbal, mental, physical and psychological abuse of the victim
o Serious trauma
o Stigmatization of the victim by the community and;
o Possible death
Indicators of Human Trafficking
Human trafficking is said to be a “black marketâ crime, not easily identified or detected, due to the organized and crafty methods employ by human traffickers. However, there are some common indicators which can help to identify a victim of human trafficking. They are as follows:
o Person appears to have visible signs of physical injuries, such as burns, lacerations, bruises or scars.
o Person does not manage their own money.
o Person is not paid for their work or is paid very little.
o Person is not in control of their documents such as passport, identification cards etc.
o Person lives with multiple persons in unsanitary conditions, or lives with employer.
o Person is rarely alone and appears to always have an escort with them.
o Person exhibits submissive behaviour.
o Heavy security at commercial establishments such as brothels, entertainment spots, night clubs, etc.
In conclusion, it takes a holistic and sustained effort by all stakeholders to end modern day slavery in all its forms. On this special designated day against human trafficking, we encourage you play your part in ending this global scourge.
The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Unit (ATIPU)
Questelles Police Station